This review focuses on the mechanisms and indications underlying weight loss surgery for the reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other expected benefits of this intervention. A description of specific bariatric surgical procedures, as well as possible indications for weight loss surgery, is provided along with a review of the safety literature of such procedures.
The ultimate benefit of losing weight is related to the reduction of comorbidities, quality of life and all-cause deaths. Although the underlying rationale for bariatric surgery to improve CVD risk is weight loss, available evidence-based research on body fat distribution, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, obstructive sleep apnea, and others are discussed.
The rationale for bariatric surgery that reduces CVD events is discussed and juxtaposed with the effects on deaths from all causes. Given the improvement in CVD risk factors associated with established obesity following weight loss, it is reasonable to expect a reduction in CVD events and associated deaths following weight loss in populations with obesity. The quality of available evidence is reviewed and future research opportunities and summaries are indicated.
The basic basis of bariatric surgery in order to achieve weight loss is to determine that severe obesity is a disease associated with multiple adverse effects on health that can be reversed or improved with successful weight loss in patients who cannot sustain weight loss nonsurgical tools. Surgical intervention criteria were established by a 1991 NIH consensus panel. Failure of medical treatment to consistently lose weight is common among people with severe obesity. Biological factors involved in the limitations associated with maintaining weight loss are strong Intensive lifestyle intervention can produce an average of 10% in 1 year and keep weight loss at 5.3% for 8 years.
The weight loss achieved is highly variable but sufficient to provide improvement in medical and comorbidity control. Pharmacotherapy can increase short-term and long-term weight loss. Specific criteria established by the NIH panel showed that bariatric surgery is suitable for all patients with a BMI (kg/m2 )> 40 and for patients with BMI 35-40 and concomitant comorbid conditions. Although specific indications for bariatric / metabolic surgical intervention have been identified for people with less severe obesity, such as people with type 2 diabetes and BMI 30-35, these criteria have persisted for 24 years. The indications for bariatric surgery are rapidly evolving to take into account the presence or absence of comorbid conditions and the severity of obesity, as reflected in BMI.
Comorbidity associated with obesity (weight loss) surgery turkey is defined as conditions that are directly caused by overweight / obesity or are known to contribute to the presence or severity of the condition. These comorbid conditions are expected to improve or go into remission in the presence of effective and sustained weight loss.
Requirements for patient selection include BMI criteria described above and failure of medical treatment. Specific criteria for determining medical treatment failure have not been formalized, but often include treatment in a variety of medically controlled settings. Understanding or understanding the pathogenesis of weight loss surgery turkey Izmir and the necessity of significantly reducing energy intake is a must if a great weight loss is to be achieved. Bariatric surgery candidates should be evaluated for appropriate surgical risk, including the presence of cardiovascular and other pulmonary system diseases and control of these comorbid conditions. These principles apply to surgical procedures in general. For example, patients with an extremely high risk profile for cardiovascular disease,
However, examples of the most severely obese patients whose perioperative risk can be improved by weight loss include patients with congestive heart failure, associated anasarca, respiratory failure, and ambulatory care. Preoperative psychological assessment is usually performed to identify patients who need preoperative intervention or who should be completely disqualified. Active substance abuse is a standard contraindication to weight loss surgery. Although the requirement for mandatory preoperative weight loss among all patients is not justified by the published literature, individual patients considered to be at extremely high risk due to the severity of obesity and their comorbid conditions are eligible in selected cases.
The literature is growing surrounding psychological assessment and the possibility of predicting success. Psychological evaluation before bariatric surgery can identify patients with psychopathology such as major depression, binge eating disorder, substance abuse, and these may influence the decision to continue surgery or indicate a referral for further preoperative evaluation and intervention. Additionally, psychological assessment can contribute to estimating post-surgical weight loss.
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