Colon Cancer and Diseases

Colon Cancer and Diseases
Colon Cancer and Diseases
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Intestine is called the part between stomach and anus. It consists of 2 parts, the large intestine and the small intestine in humans. Absorption and digestion function occurs in the small intestine. The nutrients here are broken down into small molecules, absorbed by the lining of the intestine and mixed into the blood.

The large intestine basically provides the absorption of water in the body. The amount of water absorbed daily is between 0.5-1.5 liters. Apart from water, glucose, inorganic salts and fatty acids are absorbed from here. The firmness of the stool is adjusted here. Stool contains undigested food, bile, dead intestinal cells, and colon mucus.


Abdominal pain (can be mild and temporary, can be continuous and severe), bloody mucus stool (blood and mucus discharge in bowel movements), changes in bowel habits (constipation and diarrhea attacks), nausea, vomiting, weakness, anemia, stool Symptoms such as being thinner than normal are among the symptoms of large intestine disease. These symptoms may be in benign diseases as well as a harbinger of cancer. Therefore, medical examination is very important and necessary.


Physical examination is performed first in diseases of the large intestine. In the examination, whether there is a mass in the abdomen, an increase or decrease in bowel sounds, and an examination of the anus is performed. Even with this examination, preliminary information about many diseases is obtained and it is determined which blood tests and films are required to make a diagnosis.

One of the most important methods for diagnosis is “Colonoscopy”. Even in patients with no risk factors, the World Health Organization recommends screening colonoscopy and then repeat at regular intervals for anyone over the age of 50. If there are risk factors such as bowel cancer in the family, screening should be started at a much earlier age.

With colonoscopy, the entire large intestine is seen and it is determined whether there is a problem inside.

If a pathology (such as lesion, polyp, tumor) is encountered during colonoscopy, it is possible to perform a biopsy. In fact, most polyps can be completely removed and treated by colonoscopy without the need for surgery. Thus, the diagnosis is made and the treatment for it begins in no time.

Also, methods such as x-ray films, tomography and ultrasound can be used for diagnostic purposes. Here, no examination can replace another. In which case, which examinations will be requested, the physician decides according to the condition of the patient.


Inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis): First of all, medication and diet are tried. Surgery is required in advanced stages and patients with high cancer risk.

Pocketing (diverticulum): They are fissures that form outward in the large intestine. It is more common in older ages. Constipation causes them to occur more frequently. they often do not cause a complaint. However, they can become inflamed and cause serious infections, abdominal abscesses and intestinal perforation. They can even damage surrounding organs. While antibiotic treatment may be sufficient in mild cases, the disease can often be exacerbated. Therefore, such patients require surgery. The relevant section is removed.

Polyps: Polyps are masses that originate from the stomach, small intestine and large intestine and grow towards the inner surface of the organ and can reach the size expressed in centimeters from millimeters. They are the most common tumors of the large intestine. Although most of the polyps are benign, some of them develop colon cancer , especially with the growth of their diameters and genetic changes . Colonoscopy is required for early detection. It may be possible to completely remove the polyps with colonoscopy, in this case, there is no need for surgery. Bowel cancer It is known that 90% of the cases are caused by adenomatous type large intestine polyps and therefore, the detection, histological diagnosis and follow-up of the intestinal polyps by colonoscopy is very important.

Anal fistula: Also described

Anal fissure: Also described

Hemorrhoids: Also described

The symptoms of these diseases are different and their treatments also differ.


Symptoms of colon cancer

Blood in stool: Stool may turn bright red or dark black. Visible blood is present in 35-60% of the patients and occult blood that can be detected by stool examination in the others.

Abdominal pain: 30% of patients have cramp-like intermittent abdominal pain symptoms.

Changes in defecation habits: In approximately 20-25% of patients, there may be differences such as constipation and diarrhea periods longer than a week or thinning of the stool diameter.

Weight Loss: Unexplained weight loss occurs in 10-15% of patients, often a loss of 10% of the total weight.

Anemia: It is seen at a rate of 10-15%. Symptoms such as unexplained iron deficiency, walking up stairs and climbing hills, easily breathlessness and weakness are observed.

Intestinal obstruction: Intestinal knotting occurs in approximately 10% of the patients due to the growing tumor preventing the intestinal passage . When this situation is encountered, in appropriate cases , it can be corrected by colonoscopy by temporarily placing an umbrella-shaped “stent” or by surgery.

Rectal pain: It is seen at a rate of 4-6%.

Inability to empty the stool completely

No complaint: Approximately 3% of the patients have no complaints and are determined incidentally during examinations such as colonoscopy .

How is colon cancer diagnosed?

  • Rectal examination
  • Occult blood test in stool
  • Anoscopy: Examination of only the breech canal with a lighted instrument.
  • Rectoscopy (proctoscopy): It is the examination of the last part of the large intestine called the rectum with a lighted (metal or soft or flexible) instrument called an endoscope.
  • Sigmoidoscopy: It is the examination of the left half of the large intestine close to the anus with a soft or flexible (flexible) lighted instrument called an endoscope.
  • Colonoscopy: It is the examination of the entire large intestine with a soft or flexible light instrument called an endoscope.
  • Medicated large intestine film: Intestinal x-ray, intestinal x-ray, colon radiography, enema opaque colon radiography
  • Virtual colonoscopy: research using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging
  • Computed tomography: It is widely used in the staging of bowel (colon) cancer and rectal cancer.
  • Blood tests: Research with tumor markers (CEA, Ca 19-9)
  • PET / CT: Used to investigate the spread of cancer to other organs and to monitor patients with bowel cancer for recurrence.

Surgery – Laparoscopic Colectomy (Closed large intestine surgery)

Surgery is extremely effective in colon cancer. Surgery is planned according to where the cancer is located in the intestine and its stage. Nowadays, closed (laparoscopic method) surgery is treated. It provides sufficient treatment and provides less pain, quicker standing up and discharge. In addition, infection and wound hernias are much less common after laparoscopic colon surgeries. In this way, if he will receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy after surgery, treatment can be started early. The success of the procedure is directly proportional to the experience of the surgeon. It has been scientifically proven that the more experience, the better the results. As a result, the treatment of large intestine cancers is applied in a very effective and comfortable way with the closed method.

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