Thyroid Cancer and Diseases

Thyroid Cancer and Diseases
Thyroid Cancer and Diseases
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Butterfly-shaped thyroid gland, just anterior to the neck; It is the basic hormone that adjusts the metabolic rate of our body with the thyroid hormones it produces. It weighs about 20 grams.

The state where thyroid hormones are secreted more than normal is called hyperthyroidism, and the condition where less than normal is secreted is called hypothyroidism. Goiter is the enlargement of the thyroid gland for various reasons.


There are two types of thyroid hormones, T3 and T4, secreted by the thyroid gland in the neck. Its most important task is to adjust the calories expended in the body and to provide energy production. Adjusts the body temperature.

What is Hyperthyroidism?

Hyperthyroidism means that the thyroid hormones secreted by the thyroid gland are overworked and there is an excess of thyroid in the blood. Hyperthyroidism, also known as toxic goiter among the people; It manifests itself with symptoms such as excessive sweating, heat resistance, palpitations. The table in which T3 and T4 is high and TSH level is low in laboratory tests is defined as “hyperthyroidism”.

What is Hypothyroidism?

Under-functioning of the thyroid is called “hypothyroidism”. Common symptoms of hypothyroidism include weakness, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, constipation, chills, and cold intolerance. Sometimes skin dryness and roughness can be seen due to dermatological diseases. Blood fats cannot be burned too much, hence cholesterol and triglyceride increase.

Thyroid hormones must be sufficient for healthy growth in children. In case of low secretion, growth retardation, short stature, and mental retardation may develop in children.

What is Thyroiditis?

It means inflammation of the thyroid gland. It may be caused by bacteria, viruses or autoimmune system. Although the symptoms are similar, the disease process, outcome and treatment differ.

Types of Thyroiditis

Bacterial Thyroid Inflammation (Acute Thyroiditis):

Bacteria-induced inflammation in the thyroid gland is called acute thyroiditis because it progresses rapidly. The cause of the disease is usually caused by bacteria coming through the blood and lymph circulation, causing inflammation in the thyroid gland. Symptoms of the disease include fever, chills, chills, palpitations, swelling of the thyroid and lymph gland, and pain. Redness can also be seen on the skin over the thyroid gland.

Virus-induced Thyroid Inflammation (Subacute Thyroiditis):

Virus-induced thyroid inflammation, especially after viral infections such as influenza, upper respiratory tract infection. The most obvious symptom of this type of discomfort is the pain seen in the front of the neck. Generally, the pain that increases with swallowing and coughing is also seen in the ear and jaw area. Before pain, weakness, palpitations, fever and swallowing difficulty may also be seen.

Hashimoto’s Disease (Hashimoto Thyroiditis):

Hashimoto-type thyroid gland inflammation occurs as a result of a disorder in the immune system with an unknown cause. This condition is the biggest cause of thyroid gland failure. At the beginning of the disorder, the gland grows, then the gland shrinks and almost disappears.

What is Goatr?

The first group of benign diseases includes the enlargement of the thyroid and is generally known as “goiter”. This growth may be in the form of bumping (budding) in one or more regions of the thyroid, into or out of the thyroid. The lumpy cut is called nodule, and the enlarged thyroid is called nodular goiter. In patients with nodules in thyroid ultrasonography, the function of the thyroid gland is evaluated with a method called scintigraphy and it is understood whether the nodules are working. Whether the nodules are benign or malignant can be determined by a method called fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB).

Goiter Treatment

First of all, if there is no hormonal disorder, the nodules are small and there is no suspicion of cancer, surgery is not required. It is sufficient to follow up whether there is a growth in the gland with routine follow-up and to monitor hormone levels. But in the following cases, surgical treatment is recommended to the patient.

  • Patients diagnosed with cancer as a result of needle biopsy
  • The needle biopsy result is uncertain and if cancer is suspected
  • If there are highly enlarged nodules (the greater the diameter of the nodule, the greater the likelihood of cancer)
  • If there are signs such as difficulty in swallowing, hoarseness, shortness of breath, which may occur as a result of the enlargement of the thyroid gland and pressure on the surrounding.
  • Shape change in the trachea (windpipe)

What is thyroid cancer?

Thyroid cancer is cancer of the thyroid gland. It is generally seen in patients under the age of 20 or over the age of 60. Generally, they are the types of cancer that can be treated well.

What are the symptoms of thyroid cancer?

Thyroid cancer typically does not show any signs or symptoms early in the disease. Later on, it can cause:

  • A lump that can be felt on the skin on your neck
  • Changes in your voice, including an improvement in hoarseness
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Pain in your neck and throat
  • Swollen lymph nodes in your neck


  • Benign thyroid disease
  • Radiation exposure
  • Family history
  • Obesity

Types of Thyroid Cancer

Papillary Type: 80 percent of thyroid cancers are papillary type. It spreads via lymph. It can be diagnosed by needle biopsy.

Follicular Type: It is seen 10% frequently. It spreads via blood. The diagnosis cannot be made with needle biopsy.

Medullary Type: They constitute 5% of thyroid cancers. 80% of the cases can be diagnosed with needle biopsy. Familial types with genetic inheritance are seen between the ages of 1-20, while non-familial ones appear after the age of 40 and generally have lymph metastasis.

Anaplastic Type: They constitute 2% of thyroid cancers. 90% of the diagnosis can be made with needle biopsy.

How are Thyroid Cancers Treated?

There are four treatment steps that must be applied in all patients with thyroid cancer (regardless of tumor size) and these are respectively:

1) Surgery: The entire thyroid gland is removed by surgery. This is the most important. Because the triroid gland must be completely removed. When there is a piece left, the possibility of recurrence increases and the effectiveness of later treatments decreases.

2) Radioactive iodine treatment: Radioactive iodine treatment is performed 4-6 weeks after the operation.

3) Treatment with levothyroxine medication

4) Follow-up at regular intervals: Follow-up is performed with thyroglobulin, thyroglobulin antibody and body scan.

In patients with thyroid cancer who undergo these treatment steps, the cancer usually disappears. However, if the surgery is insufficient or if the entire thyroid gland is not removed; or if radioactive iodine treatment is not applied, cancer recurrence is common.

Triode gland surgery (Goiter surgery, Thyroidectomy)

It is made with a very small incision in the lower part of the neck. It is a very safe operation in experienced hands. The probability of problems such as hoarseness, low calcium, bleeding and infection is less than 1%.

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